Trove – National Library of Australia

The internet has opened up a host of treasures, and never more so than when it comes to accessing historical or digitised information. Once upon a time, if a community group wanted to engage with historical sources – either by researching or sharing them – they had to go through a laborious process of libraries and archives. Now, databases like Trove at the National Library of Australia have opened up a world of possibilities.

Trove brings together Australian-related content from archives, libraries and research and cultural institutions across the country, including photos, objects, newspapers, maps, music, sound and video, government papers, diaries and letters, and archived websites. I briefly mentioned Trove in this blog post discussing public access archives and databases, but its possibilities are far more extensive.

Today, Trove Outreach Officer Catriona Bryce shares what the platform can do and how it can be used by community groups and not-for-profits.

What is your role in Trove?

My job is to talk to people about their use of Trove, and tell other people about inspirational uses of Trove. We want everyone who has an interest in Australian history and culture to see Trove as the first stop on his or her information journey.

How and why was Trove developed?

The most important thing the National Library of Australia does is to get Australia’s cultural heritage out into the world where it can inspire, inform and delight. That’s what Trove is for. Trove didn’t come out of a box, ready for the National Library to install. Trove has grown out of other services and evolved through the influence of people, technological developments and business needs. Trove was built from the experience and knowledge gained through the Library’s many years of sharing and collaborating with other organisations. From the collected catalogues of the Australian National Bibliographic Network launched in 1981, through to Picture Australia in the 2000s and the digitised newspapers, Trove was the coming together of a variety of standalone services. In the next few years Trove will be improved to make access to Australia’s collections even better.

What are the main services you provide?

Trove provides free access to the cultural collections of Australia, including university repositories, small historical societies, Australian libraries and government information.

There are three basic types of material in Trove:

  • Digitised items –  A newspaper, for instance, that was first published as printed pieces of paper. It was a tangible item. It’s had its picture taken, and been loaded into Trove. This is a digital copy of the original physical item. People can look at them right now, in Trove. We call this the digitised content.
  • ‘Born digital’ material – Think of an academic article that was created on a computer as a word document and published as a PDF, then submitted to and kept in a repository. There was never a physical version that we could hold in our hands. People can look at some of these digital copies right now on Trove, just like the digitised content.
  • Links to other collections – Only a description of the item comes into Trove. People click on a link and they’re taken to an organisation’s own website to either view more information about the item and hopefully a digitised version, or to consider if it’s possible to come and visit the item in person. Most of our cultural heritage is not digitised and available in a few clicks. We think letting people know an item exists is really important for a more complete story of Australia.

We also help organisations of all sizes share their collections with the world, through a content partnership (where we link to an external website) or a digitisation partnership (where we digitise material and share it through Trove). For both partnerships the Library has teams of people to assist organisations.

What do you find most fulfilling about your work? What’s the biggest challenge?

A couple of years ago a woman from Victoria contacted us to thank us. Her father had been reminiscing at dinner that evening about his childhood in a Victorian state home. He remembered that one day a photographer had come out to take a photograph of the children and wondered if it was possible to find it. Ten minutes’ searching in Trove and his daughter had found the only photograph of this man from his childhood. Trove returns people’s histories to them. Whenever the challenges of organisational inertia and dodgy data begin to get me down I remember this story and I know that Trove is worth the effort.

What sorts of community groups and not-for-profits use Trove, and how do they use it?

Trove works with a variety of groups from the community and non-profit sectors, from organisations like RSL Victoria, and the Tatura Irrigration and Wartime Camps Museum, to local historical societies like the Berrima Historical Society. Each of these organisations has shared their collections with Trove through a content partnership. It’s as simple as telling us that you have a collection to share.

Increasingly, local groups are working with us to digitise their local newspaper, journal or newsletter and provide free access to it in Trove.

For instance, a ‘hidden’ journal is now accessible on Trove, according to Jaci Grant, archivist for the Catholic Diocese of Bathurst, who partnered with the Library to digitise the diocesan newsletter, The Record (1877-1884; 1929-1931). The Library completed the 200 issues of this journal just before Christmas 2016. According to Ms Grant, “it was a rewarding and enjoyable process…the hard copy of the Record is often required for research purposes, now that the title is digitised and has been delivered to Trove there is no longer anything to hold up researchers. Having the journal digitised will mean that the hard copy no longer needs to be handled so will help preserve the copies for a longer time.”

Apart from sharing collections or digitising, museums use to Trove to research new exhibitions, historical societies use Trove to find out more about their history, and they train their members in the use of Trove.

Trove brings people together. A small town of 500 people in Western Australia, 300 kilometres north of Perth, is a vibrant centre of historical discovery and sharing. Formed in 1983, the Carnamah Historical Society collects, records, preserves and promotes their local history. They have been using Trove for years to better understand their community and they share their understandings in a museum, a heritage-listed building and the Biographical Dictionary of Coorow.

Being able to search across newspapers has been a game-changer for historians and organisations like this. Trove supports a wide range of the society’s ‘Virtual Volunteering’ projects, such as the Biographical Dictionary of Coorow, Carnamah and Three Springs. Searchability of their local newspapers benefits both their organisation and the broader community and – since October 2015 – has resulted in a steady workforce of virtual volunteers. Some nine months later and in any given week they have between 10 and 60 volunteers from across Western Australia working on Trove correction tasks.

Andrew Bowman-Bright from the society says that volunteers have corrected 1,460,034 lines of newspaper text. This work has led directly to discoveries they would never otherwise have made. “If Trove didn’t exist we’d miss being able to easily discover so much about our history and heritage,” he said.

What’s the most innovative use of Trove you’ve seen?

There are so many innovative uses of Trove, but my current favourite has to be Dr Katherine Bode from the Australian National University discovering Australian fiction long forgotten.

In nineteenth-century Australia, newspapers were the main local publishers as well as the major sources of fiction, both local and imported.

Dr Bode, who is an Associate Professor of Literary and Textual Studies at the Australian National University, wondered about the fiction that had not been studied or even recorded as part of the body of Australian literature. What works of fiction were out there? And what is their contribution to Australia’s literary history?

Fortunately, Trove has now digitised and made freely available around 1,300 of the estimated 7,700 Australian newspapers ever published.

Trove has made it possible, for the first time, to explore this nineteenth-century Australian newspaper fiction in a systematic and extensive way.

Dr Bode devised a paratextual method to mine Trove’s digitised newspapers to automatically identify and harvest fictional content. She discovered over 16,500 fictional works, which has massively expanded the record of nineteenth-century Australian literary culture and its connections with the international circulation of fiction in this period. Her discoveries will be published in a new book called A World of Fiction: Digital Archives and the Future of Literary History, due in 2018.

These newly found works will be highlighted in Trove. Dr Bode is now working with the Trove team to load this newly discovered fiction back into Trove as brand new records, describing works of fiction where any member of the public can easily find and enjoy them.

What’s the best way for a community group or non-profit to get started with Trove?

Click in the search box, type your name, or a topic you’re interested in and click search. Start exploring from there. You never know what you’ll discover!

If you have a collection you’d like to share through Trove, the best thing to do is contact us and tell us what you’ve got. We can then work out which sort of partnership is right for you.

Where can people get more information or become part of the Trove community?

There’s plenty of information in our Help Centre, both for searching Trove and for contributing a collection to Trove. If you have any questions, please contact us.

Is there anything else you’d like to add?

If you’d like to read some wonderful stories about the things people have found in Trove, I encourage you to visit the Trove blog. Ghosts, lawn-mowers, long-lost football trophies, the role of women in wartime…there’s a lot to discover in Trove!

Not-for-profit Law

It’s not unusual for community groups and not-for-profits to find themselves in legal tangles, whether that’s around governance, dispute resolution or volunteer management. Unfortunately, legal advice can also be prohibitively expensive for many groups.

Luckily, there’s help available. Australian community groups and not-for-profits have access to the excellent Not-for-profit Law (NFP Law) service, a volunteer legal service run by the pro bono legal organisation Justice Connect.

I spoke to NFP Law’s Manager of Education and Advocacy, Nadine Clode, about what the organisation does, and what resources are available for community groups and not-for-profits with legal issues.


How and why was Not-for-profit Law started?

The service that is now called Not-for-profit Law was established by in 2007 after a scoping study about how best to respond to the unmet legal needs of small-medium not-for-profit community organisations. Ten years on, the service is growing from strength to strength. Not-for-profit Law now operates out of offices in Melbourne and Sydney, delivering advice, information and training sessions to community organisations across Australia. Why? Because we know if we support not-for-profit organisations through services and law reform, we will help them improve their efficiency and effectiveness in delivering positive outcomes for the community. They will be able to better focus their time and energy on achieving their mission – whether that’s supporting vulnerable people, delivering important services, enhancing diversity or bringing the community together.

What are the main services you provide?

We provide free or low cost, high quality practical legal help for not-for-profit community organisations, and advocate for improved standards and legal frameworks. We do this by:

  • Building not-for-profit capacity with free and low-cost education, mostly through our web-based Information Hub and through our webinar program
  • Free legal advice, delivered by staff lawyers or via Justice Connect’s member law firms and barristers
  • Law and policy reform work to make sure there is the best possible legal framework for the sector, and
  • Delivering tailored legal training on a fee-for-service basis through our social enterprise, Not-for-profit Legal Training.

What do you find most fulfilling about your work? What’s the biggest challenge?

The most fulfilling aspect of my work in the Not-for-profit Law team of Justice Connect is knowing that I can use my skills to help organisations resolve legal problems that they may have never been able to fix otherwise. In helping one organisation, I set off a positive domino effect, where I am also helping the people who go to that organisation for support or assistance. And it is often the small volunteer-run organisations that really give me a sense of doing something useful. As one volunteer told me: “After volunteering since 1995 I now feel cared about. Thank you from us all who need your help.”

The biggest challenge is meeting demand with limited resources, including funding. The Not-for-profit Law team would love to help all organisations with legal problems. But as a small team of lawyers, we don’t have the capacity. On the plus side, we have wonderful relationships with our member law firms, who provide us with countless hours of pro bono legal information and advice along with partnerships with other organisations (including in-house legal teams of corporates) who support us with our work. We also focus much of our energies on legal information resources so that, where possible, organisations can be empowered to solve their own problems.

Roughly how many organisations does NFP Law assist per year, and what areas do they work in?

In the past financial year, our Information Hub resources received 365,000 online hits – it has more than 280 factsheets and resources on a range of issues, from starting an NFP, to running meetings, to employment and safety issues.

Last year we received over 1,700 legal enquiries. Of these, we provided legal information to 1,097 clients, provided free legal advice to 379 and referred 134 clients onto one of our member firms for pro bono assistance.

We also provided legal training to over 2,400 people in 108 training sessions.

We provide assistance to NFP organisations across Australia. These organisations cover a range of community activities, from local clubs to international aid agencies. We provide direct legal assistance to organisations that help the most vulnerable and disadvantaged people. This can take a number of forms, including free legal advice or a pro bono referral.

What are the most common legal issues faced by non-profits or community groups?

We are often asked about managing volunteers – this is not surprising given that many (if not all!) of the 600,000 not-for-profit organisations across Australia are supported by volunteers, or are wholly volunteer run. We have developed many helpful guides (including Ending the volunteer relationship and Safety, risk management and volunteers) and our training program on ‘legal issues in managing volunteers’ is always popular.

Governance obligations is another common issue that NFP organisations ask us about. To meet this demand, we offer organisations tailored and comprehensive governance training that helps board and committee members better understand their legal responsibilities.

How to resolve an internal dispute is another common enquiry. We have produced a comprehensive suite of dispute resolution resources which are available on our Internal Conflict page, however, we do not provide direct legal advice on this issue.

Fundraising laws in Australia are complex and tricky to navigate. We are frequently asked about the need for licences in one or more states (where organisations want to conduct an online fundraising campaign). We have been working hard to #fixfundraising laws. The campaign has called for the repeal of complicated and duplicative state and territory-based fundraising laws, and proposed that the Australian Consumer Law provides a nationally-consistent set of laws that can be used to support ethical fundraising behaviour.

Which area(s) of law do you think it’s crucial for non-profits to understand?

It is crucial for not-for-profits to be practising good governance. Good governance means committee members (or board members) are complying with their legal duties, in turn this means a better-run organisation. Legal duties apply to all people who sit in a governance position in all not-for-profit organisations. If legal duties are not complied with, committee members could be legally responsible and penalties could apply, which is why it is so important that legal duties are understood. The good news is, legal duties are easy to meet and we have free resources that explain them with practical examples!

What’s the most important thing a non-profit or community group can do to ensure they meet their legal obligations?

There are number of important things a not-for-profit or community group should do to meet their legal obligations. There are numerous obligations, including as committee members in understanding the role and legal duties that come with it, under work health and safety laws, and compliance with requirements set down by regulators such as Fair Trading NSW or the Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Commission.

This is why we have developed our Information Hub which has more than 280 resources covering 12 topics and more than 70 sub-topics, from setting up an organisation, to the people involved, to risk and insurance to winding up an organisation. The Hub also contains helpful toolkits (for example, how to run a NSW incorporated associations), templates (i.e. sample volunteer agreement) and checklists (i.e. holding an event) and is supported by videos that help explain common situations for community groups that might involve legal considerations (i.e. key considerations around risk and legal duties).

What should organisations do if they’re concerned that they may not be legally compliant?

We always recommend getting legal advice if an organisation is unsure if it is legally compliant. It is not something that can be ignored.

Apart from NFP Law’s own fact sheets, what resources do you recommend if people want to educate themselves on the relevant areas of law?

The Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Commission website has a wide range of factsheets and resources on managing a charity and good governance procedures.

The Arts Law Centre has their own Info Hub, similar to ours, that covers legal issues specific to arts organisations such as copyright, defamation and privacy as well as general governance topics.

What advice do you have for people who are thinking of starting a community group or non-profit?

We recommend first reading our “Getting Started” resources to get you thinking about the legal issues and decisions you will need to make. We have also developed the free Getting Started Decision Framework, that will step you through the questions your group needs to consider, and it will provide you with your own report (based on your answers to the questions) about important considerations, such as legal structure.

Before you choose to incorporate, it’s vital that you consider factors like who will run the organisation (your potential committee members), what you will do (your purposes), where your funding will come from, and how the organisation will be run.

One of the biggest decisions you will face is what legal structure you should choose. It is important to be aware of the different options, and the obligations attached to each structure. We recommend reading widely to make sure you choose the most appropriate structure the first time, because having to change structure down the track can be difficult. Our resources on legal structures are available here.

Running an organisation can be a fair amount of work. Sometimes it can be more convenient and practical to work with an organisation already in existence. If there are other organisations doing the same or similar work you wish to do, you might consider volunteering with them, or looking at your work forming a project under their umbrella.

How can people get in touch with you?

We release a monthly Not-for-profit Law Update that advertises upcoming training sessions, changes in the law and relevant news from the sector. It’s a great way to stay informed with the not-for-profit community and any changes or events that may be relevant to your organisation. You can sign up to receive the update here. We also keep a fairly active Twitter account if that is your thing (our handle is @nfp_law).

Keep an eye on our training page for upcoming free and low cost webinars for individuals. If you think your organisation could benefit from a training session with Justice Connect’s lawyers, then visit our Training for Community Organisations page. We provide training on a wide variety of topics and tailor the content to suit your needs. Get in touch today to book in!

Storytelling for community groups

Book on wood planks over beauty mountains landscape background

Here at Pure Arts Communications, among other things, I run two kinds of writing training – professional writing for organisations, and fiction writing (because, when I don’t have my PAC hat on, you can find me writing fiction under the name L.M. Merrington). One of the great misconceptions I encounter, however, is that the gulf between these two types of writing is huge and insurmountable.

In some ways, of course, they’re very different – but increasingly we’re starting to see businesses incorporating many of the principles of narrative storytelling into their communications. Why? Because as humans we’re hardwired for story, and narrative storytelling is one of the most effective ways of conveying information. Just how effective this method is can be seen in the phenomenal success of TED Talks, the most popular of which has garnered nearly 24 million views (yes, you read that right!).

So how can you start incorporating storytelling techniques into your organisation’s communications?

Understand your organisation’s story

Community groups and not-for-profits often have rich stories and histories, because more often than not they’ve been started by people who are incredibly passionate about what they do. Think about why your organisation exists and what drove the people who began it. What community need is it meeting? This sort of story – where you came from, where you’re going and why you care about it – is perfect for your website’s ‘About Us’ page. Being able to clearly articulate your group’s story is also crucial for fundraising, because people want to know what they’re supporting.

Find and emphasise common themes

A couple of years ago, I helped a community theatre group prepare an oral history project (through a series of video interviews) as part of their 50th anniversary celebrations. A thing that interviewees consistently said – no matter whether they’d been there right from the start or had joined relatively recently – was that they stayed because the group was like a family. Given that the amateur theatre world can sometimes be cliquey and elitist, having lots of clips of people saying that they found the group warm and welcoming was communications gold, because it showed how they were different and what their values were.

Be passionate, personal and authentic

One of the reasons storytelling is so powerful is because it connects with our emotions. People who are looking to get involved with a community group will probably use a rational basis for their decision – Is it close to me? Does it engage my interests? – but they’ll also be looking to connect on an emotional level as well. Is the group friendly? Will I fit in here? What are their values and do they align with mine?

One of the best ways to connect at this emotional level is to talk about your organisation passionately and authentically, and in a way that builds relationships. This may mean asking some of your members to tell their stories about why they joined and why they stay – testimonials are very powerful – but also showing the passion that your organisation has for its cause.

Being authentic and passionate doesn’t mean being unprofessional. It simply means finding a voice that’s unique to your group and staying true to your organisation’s values across all your communications.

Enjoy it!

Storytelling is great fun, and it can make your communications so much easier and more interesting. There are many, many resources for non-profits available online, so have a look around and give it a go. Even if you’re not a natural writer, you might surprise yourself!

5 steps for scoping a project

For many volunteer organisations or community groups, scoping out a large project can be a daunting task. We’ve all been there – when confronted with a massive undertaking, such as developing a new policy or procedure, it can be hard to know where to start.

But learning to outline a project effectively is imperative – having a properly-scoped project will help you complete it on time and on budget. If you’re looking to work with an outside professional, such as a freelance designer, writer or consultant, you’ll also need to have a good idea of what you want before you approach them, because they’ll need to know details and timelines. So here are a few simple steps to make the process easier.

1. Start with the big picture. What is it you want to achieve with the project and why? E.g. “Develop a sexual harassment policy for our organisation to bring us into line with best practices and ensure we meet our legal and ethical obligations.”

2. Break it into chunks. Almost all projects can be compartmentalised to a certain extent – a long document can be broken into chapters or sections, for example. A large project becomes much more manageable once it’s in smaller pieces.

3. Prioritise the most important things. In most projects, there will be some areas that are critical and some that are less so. Figuring out what your priorities are will help you decide which tasks you need to complete first and/or which you need professional help with. This is particularly important if you’re working with a professional but don’t have the budget for them to complete the entire project. You can use a system such as MoSCoW to help align your priorities – list the things you Must do, Should do, Could do, and Want to do.

4. Develop concrete tasks. This is about translating your project from the ‘why’ to the ‘how’ – from a great idea to something that can actually be done. Your tasks need to be as specific and detailed as possible, so that the people doing them know exactly what they need to achieve. This is particularly important if you’re outsourcing some or all of them to professionals, because they’ll be working off what you tell them and any late changes could lead to an increased cost. Take each of the areas you’ve prioritised above and work out exactly what you need, e.g. “500 words outlining the history of our organisation, based on existing documents.” Make sure you think about all aspects of the task, including the amount of research or development that needs to be done, and a realistic timeframe for achieving it.

5. Set deadlines. Decide on an overall deadline for the project, and then work out individual deadlines for each task according to its priority. Make sure you factor in things like final proofreading for written documents, or board sign-off. The deadlines should be realistic, especially if you’re working with a professional, because quick-turnaround tasks will cost more. Note: ASAP is not a deadline!

Scoping a project takes time, and it can be frustrating when you’re enthusiastic and just want to launch straight into it. But it’s worth investing the time at the start to ensure you’ve got a really clear idea of how it’s going to run – it’ll save you a lot of grief down the track and will also help you maintain good relationships with any outside providers you’re working with.

Why all community groups need a sexual harassment policy

Taylor Swift. Photo by Steve Granitz/WireImage

Today a jury in the US found DJ David Mueller guilty of assault and battery against pop star Taylor Swift, for putting his hand up her skirt and groping her at a party. For the many women around the world who have been subject to sexual harassment or assault, this was a vindicating moment.

Most workplaces these days have come a long way in how they deal with sexual harassment allegations, with comprehensive policies and procedures that comply with the relevant laws while being as just and fair as possible. Many community groups and small not-for-profits, however, still have a long way to go.

It’s easy to see how developing these policies can be put off. They’re complex, difficult to get right and may even require legal advice. When a volunteer board has its hands full keeping the organisation running, policies and procedures often get put on the backburner or take a very long time to come to fruition.

Unfortunately, many community groups only realise how important these things are when they’re needed, which is far too late. It’s not unusual for a community group to go into meltdown over a sexual harassment allegation when it doesn’t have a policy or procedure to follow. The resulting process risks being neither just nor fair, and may fail to conform to best practice for investigating these sorts of allegations as set out by the Australian Human Rights Commission. The complainant may also have grounds for a complaint to either the AHRC or their state-based anti-discrimination authority due to failures in the process, which could end up being drawn-out, painful and costly for all involved. Dealing with sexual harassment allegations is never going to be easy, but having a proper process will make it less traumatic for both the complainant and the accused, and will increase the chances of a satisfactory resolution for all parties.

If your organisation doesn’t have a sexual harassment policy, the time to develop one is now. The good news is there are plenty of resources available to help you.

Developing these sorts of policies and procedures isn’t just about protecting your organisation – it’s about ensuring all parties are treated justly and fairly, and that the process is transparent and well-executed. You may think the cost in time and potentially money (should you require legal advice) is high – but the cost of not doing it can be far higher.

Authentic communication

One of the biggest sticking points for community organisations when it comes to outreach is worry about having to engage in ‘marketing’ or self-promotion. Terms like ‘personal brand’ can give the impression that we have to create something apart from ourselves, a persona that’s disconnected from who we really are. This is particularly alarming if you’re naturally introverted, and the thought of having to blow your own trumpet gives you chills.

In fact, however, the most effective engagement usually comes from simply being yourself. This is a surprisingly difficult lesson to learn – I say this from experience – because, especially in this age of social media and carefully curated images, it’s so easy to keep comparing ourselves to others and feeling like there’s a whole lot of things we ‘should’ be doing, even if they don’t really float our boat.

A common refrain I hear is that people feel their group needs to have a presence on every social media platform, but they just don’t have the time or the inclination to manage it all. My response to that is simple: if you don’t like it, don’t do it. The chances are your audience will be concentrated on one or two main platforms (probably Facebook or Twitter, although Instagram may be more appropriate for artists or those with a strong visual focus, and LinkedIn can also be good for professional-level networking), so go where they are and don’t worry about the others. It’s much better to learn how to use one or two platforms really effectively than to spread yourself too thinly across many.

The same thing goes for organisations’ websites. Some people get great engagement (and presumably enjoyment) out of having a blog for their community group, but blogs take maintenance, and if that’s not your thing then don’t worry about it. Your website needs to be informative and serve your audience’s needs – and this may or may not include a blog.

I understand this pressure all too well, having gone through the same thing with my own business. Being in strategic communications, I felt like I should be blogging about new technology or developments in search engine optimisation, because that seemed to be what everyone else was doing. Then, at the prompting of a very wise business coach, I stopped and thought about what I was really passionate about – helping community groups and not-for-profits bring their work to a wider audience, because I see immense value in their work and the contribution it makes to society. Once I remembered exactly why I’d started my business in the first place, blogging suddenly became a whole lot easier, because I believe in what I’m writing about. So if your research and passion is planting trees, or feeding the homeless, or teaching people how to trace their family tree, use that as your main point of engagement. If you’re authentic in your outreach, you’ll attract people who share your interests and who want to hear more about your work. You can’t please everyone, but the good news is you don’t have to.